Linux installation, administration, configuration related articles

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on 04th May 2015 / by zyxware_shop_admin
Debian 8.0 Amd64 Live Cinnamon DVD is the another flavour from the debian group. This new release of Debian again comes with a lot more software than its predecessor wheezy; the distribution includes over 12253 new packages, for a total of over 43512 packages. Most of the software in the distribution has been updated: over 24573 software packages (this is 66% of all packages in wheezy). Also, a significant number of packages (over 5441, 14% of the packages in wheezy) have for various reasons been removed from the distribution. Debian 8.0 is the first Debian release to use systemd as the default init software. Debian Jessie ships with GNOME Shell 3.14 as the default desktop environment and a number of code hardening features have been added to the build process. It will be supported for the next 5 years. About Debian The Debian Project is an association of individuals who have made common cause to create a free operating system. This operating system is called Debian GNU/Linux, or simply Debian for short. Debian systems currently use the Linux kernel. Linux is a completely free piece of software started by Linus Torvalds and supported by thousands of programmers worldwide. Of course, the thing that people want is application software: programs to help them get what they want to do done, from editing documents to running a business to playing games to writing more software. Debian comes with over 50,000 packages (precompiled software that is bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine) - all of it free. It's a bit like a tower. At the base is the kernel. On top of that are all the basic tools. Next is all the software that you run on the computer. At the top of the tower is Debian -- carefully organizing and fitting everything so it all works together. Code Name Jessie Distribution Name Debian Version 8.0 Architecture Amd64 Number of Media 1 Size 1 GB Media Type DVD Software Type Linux https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/amd64/release-notes/ Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 02nd May 2015 / by zyxware_shop_admin
Debian 8.0 is the first Debian release to use systemd as the default init software. Debian Jessie ships with GNOME Shell 3.14 as the default desktop environment and a number of code hardening features have been added to the build process. It will be supported for the next 5 years. Debian 8.0 i386 DVD can be used with any PC. About Debian The Debian Project is an association of individuals who have made common cause to create a free operating system. This operating system is called Debian GNU/Linux, or simply Debian for short. Debian systems currently use the Linux kernel. Linux is a completely free piece of software started by Linus Torvalds and supported by thousands of programmers worldwide. Of course, the thing that people want is application software: programs to help them get what they want to do done, from editing documents to running a business to playing games to writing more software. Debian comes with over 50,000 packages (precompiled software that is bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine) - all of it free. It's a bit like a tower. At the base is the kernel. On top of that are all the basic tools. Next is all the software that you run on the computer. At the top of the tower is Debian -- carefully organizing and fitting everything so it all works together. Code Name Jessie Distribution Name Debian Version 8.0 Architecture i386 Number of Media 1 Size 12.5 GB Media Type DVD Software Type Linux https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/releasenotes Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 27th April 2015 / by zyxware_shop_admin
Ubuntu 15.04, the new release, will be supported for nine months, features LibreOffice 4.4, version 3.19 of the Linux kernel and a switch from Canonical's Upstart init to system. This i386 Architecture will support you for any PC. About Ubuntu Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux operating system, freely available with both community and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto: that software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customise and alter their software in whatever way they see fit. "Ubuntu" is an ancient African word, meaning "humanity to others". The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world. Distribution Name Ubuntu Version 15.04 Architecture i386 Number of Media 1 Size 1.1GB Media Type DVD Software Type Linux https://wiki.ubuntu.com/VividVervet/ReleaseNotes Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 02nd March 2015 / by nidhi.sen
Those who are working on php/achache/msql environment, I feel it is always easier to download and install xampp on your machine compared to separate installation of php/mysql/apache.I. Given below the steps for that. Downloading xampp latest verion Download xampp-linux-1.8.1.tar.gz from apachefriends. Put the file on home/user. Open terminal. Give the commandsudo tar xzvf xampp-linux-1.8.1.tar.gz -C /opt/ xmapp will be installed on /opt/lampp directory. 2. Then to start xampp, Give the command sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start You will be getting the below mentioned message on your terminal Starting XAMPP for Linux 1.8.1...XAMPP: Starting Apache with SSL (and PHP5)...XAMPP: Starting MySQL...XAMPP: Starting ProFTPD...XAMPP for Linux started. 3. Stopping xampp Give command sudo /opt/lampp/lampp stop 4. Verification of xampp works For that start xampp first. sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start Then open a browser and just give URL, http://localhost You will get xampp welcome screen as in the attached screenshot xmpp-welcome-screen.png 5. Security To make the xampp secure, you have to set password for xampp pages, mysql/phpmyadmin and mysql root user.Otherwise when you are trying to access xampp pages, you will get error as in the screenshot error-phpmydmin.png. So to set password, give command on the terminal, sudo /opt/lampp/lampp securityand set password accordingly to the instructions showing on the terminal.Now you can start using xampp Reference link: http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp-linux.html Linux Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 26th February 2015 / by sandeep.sasikumar
rsync is a file and folder synchronisation tool in linux. To know more about rsync please go through this link:http://www.zyxware.com/articles/2717/how-to-backupcopysynchronise-a-full-folder-lying-on-a-remote-server-onto-another-localremote-machine-easily-using- There are options in rsync that will allow you to decide the size of files that are to be trasfered. You can tell rsync to not copy files that are of size greater than 'x' or files that are lesser in size 'x'. This command will help user to rsync files that are of a particular size limit say files size betwwen 'x' and 'y' Examples: rsync -avz --max-size='100M' source destinationrsync -avz --min-size='100M' source destination This will rsync the folders and files from source to destination folder based on size. Linux Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 26th February 2015 / by sandeep.sasikumar
rsync is a file and folder synchronisation tool in linux. To know more about rsync please go through this link:http://www.zyxware.com/articles/2717/how-to-backupcopysynchronise-a-full-folder-lying-on-a-remote-server-onto-another-localremote-machine-easily-using- rsync usually creates files or folders that are present in source to the destination folder. But if you want to avoid creating new files created at source to the destination folder then use the 'rsync --existing' command. This will only rsync the folders present at source to destination. rsync -avz --existing source destination This will rsync the folders and will synchronise only the files and folders that are present at the source folder and keep both source and destination equal. Linux Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 16th February 2015 / by anju.r
Suppose you are working in a software enterprise and you have to combine different csv files to create a report. It is a tedious job if you try to combine it manually by copying and pasting. We can do it if there exists only 2 0r 3 files. But if we have to merge too many files, it is not time worthy. Here I am going to explain a simple step procedure to combine multiple csv files in linux operating system through command prompt. Please check the below steps to combine different csv files using command prompt in Linux operating system: First you have to gather all the csv files into a single folder. Open that folder. For example if you have all the csv files in 'CSV' folder which is in Desktop,then type the following on the terminal cd Desktop/CSV cat issues*.csv > newissues.csv where issues*.csv are the csv files which you have to combine and newissuess.csv is the result of the combined csv files. You can also combine multiple csv files by specifying each csv file name. For eg: cat issues1.csv issues2.csv > newissuesnew.csv Hope this article helps you to combine multiple csv files. The only drawback I found here was that the headers are being repeated. Linux Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 05th February 2015 / by sandeep.sasikumar
The iptables is nothing but a program that controls the linux based firewall that handles filtering for IPV4 and ip6tables for handling IPV6. Delete existing rules in IP tables iptables -F (or) iptables --flush Before we start entering new set of iptable rules it would be better for us to flush the old default set of rules in iptables. The iptables flush command will help to do this. Allow all incoming SSH connections iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 2222 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -p tcp --sport 2222 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT This iptable entries will allow all incoming SSH connections to the eth1 interface. Allow outgoing SSH connections iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -p tcp --dport 2222 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp --sport 2222 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT This iptable entry will allow all outgoing SSH connections through eth1 interface. Allow ping from outside to the server iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT This iptable entry will allow ping from outside users our server Allow ping from inside to outside iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT These entries will allow ping from our server to outside. Block a specific ipaddress IPADDRESS_TO_BE_BLOCKED = "x.x.x.x" iptables -A INPUT -s "$IPADRESS_TO_BE_BLOCKED" -j DROP This iptable entry will block the ipaddress that needs to be blocked. Allow rsync from a specific network iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp -s *.*.*.*/24 --dport 873 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -p tcp --sport 873 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT The above iptable entry will allow rsync from a specific network (*.*.*.*/24 defines the ipaddress range ) Allow postfix and sendmail iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 25 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -p tcp --sport 25 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT This iptable entry will allow mail traffic Prevent DoS attack iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m limit --limit 25/minute --limit-burst 100 -j ACCEPT This iptable entry will prevent the DOS(Denial of service) attack on our webserver. Allow port forwarding iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d *.*.*.* --dport 537 -j DNAT --to *.*.*.*:22 This iptable entry will route all traffic that comes to 537 to the port 22. This means that both the port will accept packets. These are some of the main iptable rules that are configured Linux IPV4 Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *
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on 04th July 2013 / by sandeep.sasikumar
On certain servers, there are chances of our IP addresses getting blocked when we accidentally enter the wrong password multiple times or when we unintentionally try to ssh via the wrong port multiple times. The IP will be blocked for a certain period of time. If you have faced the same issue then read on to know how to block blacklisted IP addresses on a WHM based GNU/Linux server. Before trying to solve the problem we have to check the following things to identify where we went wrong: Check whether the username and password you entered is correct Check whether your passwords have unnecessary spaces. Check the default ssh-port Now lets see how to remove the blocked IP from WHM Login to WHM with the username and password [The funny part about the initial step is that now you won't be able to log into WHM because your IP is blocked, so try from any another connection with a different IP :) ]. After logging in to WHM the next step is to find out the 'Plugins' option. In the 'Plugins' option select 'ConfigServer Security&Firewall' In this option you will see a list of different features and from this list note the feature titled 'Temporary allow/deny', under this you can see your IP address. To unblock your IP address simply remove that IP from the IP address field. Now try connecting with your IP address and you should be able to acess it:) Linux System Administration Server Administration WHM Network Security Web Security Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker * Alaa (not verified) access_time 18 Apr 2019 - 16:16 Thanks for the info. Anonymous (not verified) access_time 18 Apr 2019 - 16:16 i am using putty but not working my ip. Anonymous (not verified) access_time 18 Apr 2019 - 16:16 This is just what i have been looking for long. Got most of my routers ip blacklisted on whm. I read the tute, logged in the vps and cleared them up. Thanks Michelle (not verified) access_time 18 Apr 2019 - 16:16 It seems this normally happens when you make a change to a website or email on a diffrerent i.p. Either way thanks for the help. Jeffery (not verified) access_time 18 Apr 2019 - 16:16 May I know how to remove our IP from the Gmail blacklist? I need to know the reason why I was blacklisted. Here is my blog maxautoglass.com and I need help to configure a static IP address from Windows 7. Add new comment
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on 11th January 2013 / by sandeep.sasikumar
Here is a script to help you find empty directories located under a specified parent-folder. The file folders.txt contains the list of folders that are to be passed as input to the script. The script will now check all the folders mentioned in the file folders.txt, and give the list of folders that are empty. The output can either be seen at the terminal or it can be passed to a file via a redirector. Here is the code for the same: #!/bin/bash # Script to find empty directories # Read the name of folders from the folders.txt file # path to the folder #find . -type d -empty will find all empty directories path=/path/to/the/parent/folder while read folder do echo "$folder" cd $path/$folder empty=`find . -type d -empty` echo -e "$empty" done < folders.txt Linux System Administration Shell Scripting Leave a reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marker *